Aquaritin 19 and Defend foliar sprays use breakthrough nanotechnology to deliver essential nutrients like NPK and Silicon in a single formulation that promotes immediate and long lasting color response, greater photosynthesis and plant & root health.
Most NPK foliar fertilizers recommend an application rate of 1.5 gallons to 2.5 gallons per acre. They are also not entirely compatible with other products in your tank. Aquaritin 19 readily tank mixes with all fertilizers, fungicides and PGRs while dosing at just 5.63 oz per acre. Labor savings therefore come from ease of use and by not having to handle gallon jugs. Our high end golf course customers have also saved on labor by switching from walk behind mowers to triplex mowers while using Aquaritin 19 and Aquaritin Defend to mitigate mechanical stress. The silica in our products is a known defense against mechanical and traffic stress.
Get your fertility costs under control with Aquaritin. Owing to a small particle size with a high surface area, nanotechnology-enabled Aquaritin 19 delivers the same amount of Nitrogen as traditional fertilizers with 60 times less weight. And it costs less than half at just $28.33/per acre.
Nano N fertilizer is emerging as a key advancement in modern agriculture due to its ability to increase yield, improve soil fertility, reduce pollution and create a favorable environment for microorganisms. Data suggests that about 40-70% of the Nitrogen in conventional applied fertilizers is lost to the environment and is not utilized by crops, which not only causes large economic and resource losses but also is instrumental to environmental pollution.
In controlled experiments, analysis has shown a higher accumulation of N in plants grown with nano fertilizer vs. conventional fertilizers. Post-effect of nano fertilizer application in soil showed better pH, moisture content, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and available nitrogen under nano fertilizer treatment than conventional fertilizer.
Percent release of nitrogen of conventional fertilizer and nano fertilizer showed that conventional fertilizer has an initial lower value followed by an increase and decrease at 30 days whereas nano fertilizer showed an initial higher rate followed by a decreasing trend and again an increase at 30 days of incubation and the rate was higher than conventional fertilizer. The release is again increased after 30 days indicating the fact that the bonding might have been better and the nano fertilizer thus synthesized has the potential to release nutrients further.
Aquaritin 19 uses breakthrough nanotechnology to deliver Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and 7 essential nutrients in a single formulation. Analysis shows higher accumulation of Nitrogen in plants grown with nano fertilizers
While silicon (Si) is the second-most abundant element on Earth, making up 27.7% of the Earth’s crust, the uptake, translocation, and movement of Si is a very slow process, thus amendment with exogenous soluble Si provides many benefits. Silicon plays a pivotal role in the nutritional status of a wide variety of monocot and dicot plant species and helps them, whether directly or indirectly, counteract abiotic and/or biotic stresses. The valuable role of Si on plant growth and yield has been well-documented in the literature, as has its ability to enhance responses to abiotic and biotic stressors.
Silicon promotes greater photosynthesis, cell wall strength, plant rigidity, root development, water efficiency and enhanced responses to abiotic and biotic stressors.
In controlled experiments, Si application increased biomass production, the rate of photosynthesis, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and C, N, P and Si accumulation, in addition to altering stoichiometric ratios (C:N, C:P, N:P and C:Si) in different parts of the plants. These results demonstrate that Si supply improved carbon use efficiency, directly influencing yield as well as C and nutrient cycling.
Silicon also performs physiological functions in plants whose role becomes more important under adverse environmental conditions, enhancing plants resistance to both abiotic and biotic challenges. Published data shows Si beneath cuticle/in cell walls provides a mechanical barrier, faster and stronger activation of defense genes and defense enzymes, antioxidant systems are also enhanced.
Only Aquaritin delivers bioavailable silicon in a micronized spray to boost the absorption of minerals
Aquaritin is the only nano-silica product on the market. Its particle size is 1-30 nano meters. This allows the nutrients to penetrate the leaf and become available to the plant within minutes of application. Most other products on the market are 1000x bigger in particle size as compared to Aquaritin.
By adding Aquaritin to your program, you should expect to see a color response without surge growth.
Only Aquaritin Defend delivers bioavailable silicon in a micronized format boosting the absorption of minerals.
Grasses are silicon accumulators and healthy turf contains 2 to 3% SiO2. When available, silicon is absorbed into the plant tissue and deposited into the epidermis layer of each cell. This layer acts like the “mortar” in a brick or stone wall, holding the shape and structure of the cells, leading to plants that are stronger and more resistant to disease and stress.
Recent research findings suggest that our soils are measuring well below 100 ppm of mono silicic acid required for healthy turf. The next best way to boost silicon in the plant is through the regular application of a micronized foliar spray.
Following silicon application, you should see increased turgidity with a more upright leaf blade allowing for better mowing quality and surface smoothness.
In a recent trial, an increase of 20.53% in green speed was recorded after 2 weekly sprays of Aquaritin Defend without lowering HOC. Watch the video here.
Aquaritin Defend delivers color response without surge growth, improving greens speeds without lowering the height of cut.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Si in a variety of species and environmental conditions, including low nutrient availability.
Application of Si can increase nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and root uptake through complex mechanisms.
During the last decade, much effort has been aimed at linking the positive effects of Si under nutrient deficiency. These studies highlight the positive effect of Si on biomass production, by maintaining photosynthetic machinery, decreasing transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, and regulating uptake and root to shoot translocation of nutrients as well as reducing oxidative stress.
The mechanisms of these inputs and the processes driving the alterations in plant adaptation to nutritional stress are a subject of research currently underway.
Only Aquaritin delivers bioavailable silicon in a micronized spray to boost the absorption of minerals.
In plants, water deficiency can result from a deficit of water from the soil, an obstacle to the uptake of water or the excess water loss; in these cases, the similar consequence is the limitation of plant growth and crop yield.
Silicon has been widely reported to alleviate the plant water status and water balance under variant stress conditions in both monocot and dicot plants, especially under drought and salt stresses.
In addition to the regulation of leaf transpiration, recently, Si application was found to be involved in the adjustment of root hydraulic conductance by up-regulating aquaporin gene expression and concentrating K in the xylem sap.
Aquaritin fortifies the barrier structures of endo and exodermal cell layers, preventing water leakage from the central cylinder toward the soil or other surrounding substrate, limiting water loss.
Arthropod pests are biotic stressors, attacking plants above and below ground and eventually reducing yield quantity and quality. Plants counteract insect attacks both directly and indirectly. Many of these defences are regulated by signalling pathways in which phytohormones have central roles. Direct defences associated with host morphological traits such as trichomes, wax and cell wall lignification affect insect feeding behaviour and performance. These plant characteristics constitute physical or mechanical feeding barriers as the first line of defence. The second line of defence comprises secondary metabolites (e.g., phenols and lignin, which affect insect growth and development), with various enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD), being involved in their synthesis. Indirect defences are mediated by host plant volatiles or by herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) released in response to insect feeding.
It is now well established that Si enhances plant resistance and reduces plant damage caused by insect pests and non-insect pests through the mediation and upregulation of both resistance mechanisms that are constitutive (i.e., irrespective of insect presence) and induced (i.e., in response to insect attack).
Aquaritin Defend forms a defense system for your turf that enables it to control invading microorganisms and create a prophylactic system of readiness against several pathogens.
Silicon has long been known to reduce incidence of fungal diseases in a number of pathosystems.
It was first proposed that deposition of amorphous silica in the leaf apoplast impeded penetration by pathogenic fungi. This mechanical barrier formed by the polymerization of Si beneath the cuticle and in the cell walls was the hypothesis to explain how this element reduced the severity of plant diseases.
Silicon is now also considered to be biologically active and can trigger a faster and more extensive deployment of plant natural defenses.
New insights have revealed that many plant species supplied with Si have the phenylpropanoid and terpenoid pathways potentiated and have a faster and stronger transcription of defense genes and higher activities of defense enzymes.
In turfgrasses Si has been effective in suppressing numerous diseases in warm and cool-season turfgrass species. Specifically, Si increased the resistance of zoysiagrass to Rhizoctonia solani, creeping bentgrass to Pythium aphanidermatum, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, and R. solani and in Kentucky bluegrass to powdery mildew. In addition, Gray leaf spot was reduced by Si on several cultivars of St. Augustine grass and perennial ryegrass.
The silicon in Aquaritin is a key defense mechanism against fungus & pests. It boosts the metabolic process of the plant-pathogen interaction via a series of physiological and biochemical reactions and activates the defense genes of your turf. This encourages a natural resistance response to address current disease and protect against future outbreaks.
The accumulation of Si in leaves is advantageous not only for UV-B irradiation defense, but also for cooling leaves in heat stress conditions.
In this situation, bio silicified structures present in epidermal cells are effective in cooling plant leaves by the mechanism of efficient mid-IR thermal radiation; thus, silicon creates a physical mechanism against heat stress (Wang et al. 2005).
High-temperature stress limits the growth, metabolism, and productivity of plants. Due to heat stress, plant impairment is represented by oxidative stress (increased ROS production), cellular damage, membrane damage, photosynthesis inhibition, and so forth (Tan et al. 2011; Hasanuzzaman et al. 2013).
In an experiment with Agrostis palustris growing at 35°C–40°C, the temperature of the leaves decreased 3°C to 4.14°C following Si treatment in comparison to untreated control plants.
Also, Si present in soil substrate reduced heat and was effective in the cooling of plant roots (Wang et al. 2005).
Another study suggested that Si influences the thermal stability of cell membranes of plants during heat stress (Agarie et al. 1998). In this study, electrolyte leakage caused by high temperature (42.5°C) decreased in the leaves of plants grown with Si, but not in those without Si. Further studies dealing with high-temperature stress and Si interaction found an increased level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and glutathione peroxidase [GPX]) (Soundararajan et al. 2014).
Silicon supplementation also significantly influenced the protein pattern and total protein content during high-temperature stress in plants.
Overall, Si positively affected plant growth and played a vital role against high-temperature stress (Soundararajan et al. 2014). The importance of Si application under high-temperature stress was also evident in the case of alleviating fertility reduction (Wu et al. 2014). This field study revealed that silicon in various concentrations effectively increased the germinated pollen number, the number of pollen grains per stigma, the pollen germination rate, and other fertility parameters in high-temperature-sensitive and -tolerant rice hybrids (Wu et al. 2014).
Aquaritin Defend reduces the negative effects of drought on the chlorophyll content and light use efficiency of grass, providing defense in the event of prolonged water shortage.
Winter damage can be minimized by:
- Raising the cutting height during late summer or early fall
- Providing proper nutrition to build carbohydrates
- Increasing bentgrass population
- Encouraging rooting
- Reducing late fall irrigation to help decrease internal water in the plant
- Ensuring proper surface drainage
Apoplasm is the first compartment encountering environmental stresses and is important for plants tolerance to low temperature. Research data demonstrated an ameliorative effect of Si under both chilling and freezing stresses via modification of biochemical properties in the leaf apoplasm.
Harsh Winter conditions can severely stress turfgrass. Dehydration and ice cover are key threats. When the plant has access to mono-silicic acid it is deposited in plant tissues as amorphous silica gel, strengthening the cell walls similar to the way framing out a building helps it withstand the elements.
Silica is the drywall. So, when winter conditions cause dehydration within the leaf tissue, the amorphous silica gel prevents the collapse of the cell walls.
Building root mass for carbohydrate storage after a tough summer is also another benefit of silicon that will prevent winter damage.
Aquaritin can enhance root development after summer decline, allowing the plant to build a carbohydrate advantage heading into winter. Bioavailable plant nutrients in our micronized silicon spray increase cell count and density, leading to better resistance against winter traffic, wet or waterlogged areas and emergence of winter diseases. An application during fall from 5 to 7.5ml/1000 offers enhanced protection during winter and can boost photosynthesis at a time of year when it’s very important.
Salinity stress is one of the most common environmental stresses that pose a threat to the agriculture industry worldwide.
The effects of salinity stress on plants is manifested in the following areas:
(1) Osmotic stress caused by excessive soluble salt in the soil decreases the osmotic potential of soil solutions and decreases the ability of plant root systems to absorb water, resulting in physiological drought.
(2) Ion toxicity results from the toxic effect of salt ions like Na+ and Cl− inside plant cells. Excessive accumulation of intracellular salt ions results in ion imbalance and metabolic disorders.
(3) Secondary stresses are caused by osmotic and ionic stresses, including the accumulation of toxic compounds like ROS and disruption of nutrient balances in plants. For example, under high salinity conditions, Na+ competes with Ca2+ and K+ in the cell membrane, resulting in reproductive disorders.
Silicon has been proven to increase tolerance to salinity stress by regulating various biochemical and physiological processes, such as the Na+ balance, water status, reactive oxygen species, photosynthesis, phytohormone levels, and compatible solutes in plants.
The application of exogenous Si improves salinity tolerance in plants either by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes or blocking Na+ uptake and translocation (Khan et al., 2019).
Si enhances photosynthesis in salt-stressed plants by decreasing salt-ion accumulation, scavenging ROS, and regulating carbohydrate metabolism.
Studies on the mechanisms by which Si alleviates salinity stress in plants are mostly focused on decreasing Na+ in the root and/or shoot. For example, the addition of Si to salt-stressed barley could significantly decrease the levels of Na+ and Cl− in the root system, with Na+ and K+ being more evenly distributed throughout the entire root. This has been regarded as one of the major mechanisms by which Si alleviates salinity stress.
Heavy metal contamination in soil and water has increased due to anthropogenic activities. The higher exposure of plants to heavy metal stress reduces growth and yield.
Silicon derived enhancement in plant tolerance to heavy metal toxicity is well documented and the beneficial role of Si in detoxification can be ascribed to both external (growth media) and internal plant mechanisms.
The external mechanism of elevating heavy metal tolerance is due to the increased pH by silicate application resulting in metal silicate precipitates that decrease the metal phyto-availability.
In plants, Si affects the translocation and distribution of metals in various plant parts and allows them to survive under higher metal stress. Given that plants vary in their ability to accumulate Si, higher accumulators such as monocots will usually obtain greater benefits, even though metal toxicity in both monocots and dicots can be alleviated by Si.
For example: research with rice plants concluded that Si application reduced the phytotoxicity of Cadmium and excess Zinc, by decreasing membrane permeability and malondialdehyde contents, enhancing the photosynthetic activity and modulating anti-oxidant enzyme activities.
Silicon treatment also reduced Cadmium accumulation in rice plants through symplastic pathways in the root system, (Huang et al., 2019).
Aquaritin Defend enhances cell wall elasticity and plasticity, which attributes to its effect alleviating the negative effects of heavy metals on plant growth.
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Aquaritin’s nano particles mix easily with other fertilizers, fungicides and PGRs and are absorbed by the plant within minutes.
Increase uptake of your fertilizer, PGR and fungicide applications with regular Aquaritin Turf Micronized Foliar Spray use. Maintenance applications of 6-8oz every 1-2 weeks on greens and every 2-4 weeks on fairways and sports fields has been shown to lower the use of other additives, when used regularly.