Golf FAQ

Lower my labor costs

Aquaritin foliar sprays are highly concentrated and applied at just 6 oz per acre. That’s a lot less handling of materials as compared to nearly 2.5 gallons of 30-0-0 and a gallon of micronutrient foliar apps commonly applied on the fairways.

Click here to read how Matt Whalen, Superintendent at Broadlands Golf Club in Broomfield Colorado sees lower labor costs with less cleaning & clippings after using Aquaritin 19.

Golf course maintenance

Most foliar fertilizers recommend an application rate of 1.5 gallons to 2.5 gallons per acre. They are also not entirely compatible with other products in your tank. Aquaritin foliars readily tank mix with all fertilizers, fungicides and PGRs while dosing at just 5.63 oz per acre.

Unlike other nutritional products, Aquaritin delivers plant health without surge growth, which translates to a lot less clippings and cleanings.

The nanosilica in Aquaritin is known to lower water loss and protect the plant against heat stress. Our customer feedback suggests that they have had to hand-water less frequently and they have experienced less stress from foot traffic.

Nano vs. conventional

In controlled experiments, analysis has shown a higher accumulation of Nitrogen in plants grown with nano fertilizer vs. conventional fertilizers.

Data suggests that about 40-70% of the Nitrogen in conventional applied fertilizers is lost to the environment and is not utilized by crops, which not only causes large economic and resource losses but is also is instrumental to environmental pollution.

Aquaritin is the only nanosilica product on the market. Its particle size is 1-30 nano meters. This allows the nutrients to penetrate the leaf and become available to the plant within minutes of application. Most other products on the market are 1000x bigger in particle size as compared to Aquaritin.

By adding Aquaritin to your program, you should expect to see a color response without surge growth.

tank mixing

Nano Nitrogen fertilizer is emerging as a key advancement in modern agriculture due to its ability to increase yield, improve soil fertility, reduce pollution and create a favorable environment for microorganisms. 

Post-effect of nano fertilizer application in soil showed better pH, moisture content, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and available nitrogen under nano fertilizer treatment than conventional fertilizer.

Percent release of Nitrogen of conventional fertilizer and nano fertilizer showed that conventional fertilizer has an initial lower value followed by an increase and decrease at 30 days whereas nano fertilizer showed an initial higher rate followed by a decreasing trend and again an increase at 30 days of incubation and the rate was higher than conventional fertilizer. The release is again increased after 30 days, indicating the fact that the bonding might have been better and the nano fertilizer thus synthesized has the potential to release nutrients further.

Why silicon?

Silicon promotes greater photosynthesis, cell wall strength, plant rigidity, root development and water efficiency. 

Nanosilica is known to enhance plant resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Over time this can result in lowering the applications of fungicides and pesticides.

Aquaritin delivers bioavailable silicon in a micronized spray to boost the absorption of minerals. Aquaritin is a part of the greens program in at least 5 PGA tour courses. It is known to have increased density, improved green speeds without lowering HOC and above all maintain playability late into the day. All of this means happier repeat customers. 

Silicon interaction

While silicon (Si) is the second-most abundant element on Earth, making up 27.7% of the Earth’s crust, the uptake, translocation, and movement of Si is a very slow process, thus amendment with exogenous soluble Si provides many benefits. Silicon plays a pivotal role in the nutritional status of a wide variety of monocot and dicot plant species and helps them, whether directly or indirectly, counteract abiotic and/or biotic stresses. The valuable role of Si on plant growth and yield has been well-documented in the literature, as has its ability to enhance responses to abiotic and biotic stressors.

Read about the Effects of Silicon on Plant Resistance to Environmental Stresses.

In controlled experiments, Si application increased biomass production, the rate of photosynthesis, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and C, N, P and Si accumulation, in addition to altering stoichiometric ratios (C:N, C:P, N:P and C:Si) in different parts of the plants. These results demonstrate that Si supply improved carbon use efficiency, directly influencing yield as well as C and nutrient cycling.

Silicon also performs physiological functions in plants whose role becomes more important under adverse environmental conditions, enhancing plants resistance to both abiotic and biotic challenges. Published data shows Si beneath cuticle/in cell walls provides a mechanical barrier, faster and stronger activation of defense genes and defense enzymes, antioxidant systems are also enhanced.

Learn more about the Silicon Impact on Photosynthesis.

Up my green speeds

Following silicon application, you should see increased turgidity with a more upright leaf blade allowing for better mowing quality and surface smoothness.

In a recent trial, a green speed increase of 20.53% was recorded after 2 weekly sprays of Aquaritin Defend without lowering HOC. Watch the video here. 

Click here for the real-world experience of Matt Shafer, Superintendent at Stevens Point Country Club in Wisconsin. In this interview, Matt talks about green speed improvement after using Aquaritin.

Golf course greens

Aquaritin Defend delivers color response without surge growth, improving greens speeds without lowering the height of cut. 

Grasses are silicon accumulators and healthy turf contains 2 to 3% SiO2. When available, silicon is absorbed into the plant tissue and deposited into the epidermis layer of each cell. This layer acts like the “mortar” in a brick or stone wall, holding the shape and structure of the cells, leading to plants that are stronger and more resistant to disease and stress.

Recent research findings suggest that our soils are measuring well below 100 ppm of mono silicic acid required for healthy turf. The next best way to boost silicon in the plant is through the regular application of a micronized foliar spray.

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Save me money

At nanoscale, Aquaritin is over 60 times more concentrated as compared to conventional products. And that is 60x less product handling. Further, when added to the tank it enhances the efficacy of fertilizers, fungicides and PGRs by up to 30%.

While you would still need a slow release granular at the beginning of the season, Aquaritin 19 will deliver color, density and protection against biotic and abiotic stress through the playing season. No other supplemental applications are necessary and depending on the conditions, superintendents may be able to lower the total number of fairway applications.

At $29/acre, Aquaritin is at least half the cost of comparable product combos.

Tank mixing

Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Si in a variety of species and environmental conditions, including low nutrient availability. 

Application of Si can increase nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and root uptake through complex mechanisms.

Read more about the Interactions of Silicon With Essential and Beneficial Elements in Plants.

During the last decade, much effort has been aimed at linking the positive effects of Si under nutrient deficiency. These studies highlight the positive effect of Si on biomass production, by maintaining photosynthetic machinery, decreasing transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, and regulating uptake and root to shoot translocation of nutrients as well as reducing oxidative stress. 

The mechanisms of these inputs and the processes driving the alterations in plant adaptation to nutritional stress are a subject of research currently underway.

Learn about The Regulatory Role of Silicon in Mitigating Plant Nutritional Stresses.

Heat stress

The accumulation of Si in leaves is advantageous not only for UV-B irradiation defense, but also for cooling leaves in heat stress conditions. 

Click here to read an article by Dr. John Dempsey, Turfgrass Researcher, on the role of silicon as a defense modulator in abiotic stress. 

Aquaritin Defend reduces the negative effects of drought on the chlorophyll content and light use efficiency of grass, providing defense in the event of prolonged water shortage.

We’ve been on this weekly program for 15 months as an additional input and have had a very successful summer in SoCal, despite hot humid conditions and very little rain on Poa greens.

Bio silicified structures present in epidermal cells are effective in cooling plant leaves by the mechanism of efficient mid-IR thermal radiation; thus, silicon creates a physical mechanism against heat stress (Wang et al. 2005). 

High-temperature stress limits the growth, metabolism, and productivity of plants. Due to heat stress, plant impairment is represented by oxidative stress (increased ROS production), cellular damage, membrane damage, photosynthesis inhibition, and so forth (Tan et al. 2011; Hasanuzzaman et al. 2013).

In an experiment with Agrostis palustris growing at 35°C–40°C, the temperature of the leaves decreased 3°C to 4.14°C following Si treatment in comparison to untreated control plants. 

Also, Si present in soil substrate reduced heat and was effective in the cooling of plant roots (Wang et al. 2005). 

Another study suggested that Si influences the thermal stability of cell membranes of plants during heat stress (Agarie et al. 1998). In this study, electrolyte leakage caused by high temperature (42.5°C) decreased in the leaves of plants grown with Si, but not in those without Si. Further studies dealing with high-temperature stress and Si interaction found an increased level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and glutathione peroxidase [GPX]) (Soundararajan et al. 2014). 

Silicon supplementation also significantly influenced the protein pattern and total protein content during high-temperature stress in plants. 

Overall, Si positively affected plant growth and played a vital role against high-temperature stress (Soundararajan et al. 2014). The importance of Si application under high-temperature stress was also evident in the case of alleviating fertility reduction (Wu et al. 2014). This field study revealed that silicon in various concentrations effectively increased the germinated pollen number, the number of pollen grains per stigma, the pollen germination rate, and other fertility parameters in high-temperature-sensitive and -tolerant rice hybrids (Wu et al. 2014). 

Read more about Silicon and Gene Regulation to Combat Heat Stress.

Counter heat stress before it starts

Get a FREE bottle of Aquaritin Defend with your first order!

Lower my water bill

In plants, water deficiency can result from a deficit of water from the soil, an obstacle to the uptake of water or the excess water loss; in these cases, the similar consequence is the limitation of plant growth and crop yield. 

Silicon has been widely reported to alleviate the plant water status and water balance under variant stress conditions in both monocot and dicot plants, especially under drought and salt stresses. 

Aquaritin fortifies the barrier structures of endo and exodermal cell layers, preventing water leakage from the central cylinder toward the soil or other surrounding substrate, limiting water loss.

In looking back in my records, 2017 I sprayed fairways 7 times through the season. This year I sprayed fairways 3 times. 2017 we had 7.5” rain through the growing season, this year we are just over 5” to date. I’m seeing less rain, spraying less, and seeing healthier turf.

In addition to the regulation of leaf transpiration, recently, Si application was found to be involved in the adjustment of root hydraulic conductance by up-regulating aquaporin gene expression and concentrating K in the xylem sap.

Read more about the Role of Silicon in Mediating Plant Water Uptake and Loss Under Water Deficiency.

Insect damage

It is well established that Si enhances plant resistance and reduces plant damage caused by insect pests and non-insect pests through the mediation and upregulation of both resistance mechanisms that are constitutive (i.e., irrespective of insect presence) and induced (i.e., in response to insect attack).

Arthropod pests are biotic stressors, attacking plants above and below ground and eventually reducing yield quantity and quality. Plants counteract insect attacks both directly and indirectly. Many of these defenses are regulated by signaling pathways in which phytohormones have central roles. Direct defenses associated with host morphological traits such as trichomes, wax and cell wall lignification affect insect feeding behavior and performance. These plant characteristics constitute physical or mechanical feeding barriers as the first line of defense. The second line of defense comprises secondary metabolites (e.g., phenols and lignin, which affect insect growth and development), with various enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD), being involved in their synthesis. Indirect defenses are mediated by host plant volatiles or by herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) released in response to insect feeding.

Learn more about Silicon and Mechanisms of Plant Resistance to Insects. 

Disease pressure

In turfgrasses, silicon has been effective in suppressing numerous diseases in warm and cool-season turfgrass species. Specifically, Si increased the resistance of zoysiagrass to Rhizoctonia solani, creeping bentgrass to Pythium aphanidermatum, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, and R. solani and in Kentucky bluegrass to powdery mildew. In addition, Gray leaf spot was reduced by Si on several cultivars of St. Augustine grass and perennial ryegrass.

The silicon in Aquaritin is a key defense mechanism against fungus & pests. It boosts the metabolic process of the plant-pathogen interaction via a series of physiological and biochemical reactions and activates the defense genes of your turf. This encourages a natural resistance response to address current disease and protect against future outbreaks. 

Golf course maintenance

Silicon has long been known to reduce incidence of fungal diseases in a number of pathosystems. 

It was first proposed that deposition of amorphous silica in the leaf apoplast impeded penetration by pathogenic fungi. This mechanical barrier formed by the polymerization of Si beneath the cuticle and in the cell walls was the hypothesis to explain how this element reduced the severity of plant diseases.

Silicon is now also considered to be biologically active and can trigger a faster and more extensive deployment of plant natural defenses.

New insights have revealed that many plant species supplied with Si have the phenylpropanoid and terpenoid pathways potentiated and have a faster and stronger transcription of defense genes and higher activities of defense enzymes.

Learn more about Silicon and Plant Disease Resistance Against Pathogenic Fungi.

Winter damage

Harsh winter conditions can severely stress turfgrass. Dehydration and ice cover are key threats. When the plant has access to mono-silicic acid it is deposited in plant tissues as amorphous silica gel, strengthening the cell walls similar to the way framing out a building helps it withstand the elements. 

Silica is the drywall. When winter conditions cause dehydration within the leaf tissue, the amorphous silica gel prevents the collapse of the cell walls.

Building root mass for carbohydrate storage after a tough summer is also another benefit of silicon that will prevent winter damage.

Golf course

Aquaritin can enhance root development after summer decline, allowing the plant to build a carbohydrate advantage heading into winter. Bioavailable plant nutrients in our micronized silicon spray increase cell count and density, leading to better resistance against winter traffic, wet or waterlogged areas and emergence of winter diseases. An application during fall from 5 to 7.5ml/1000 offers enhanced protection during winter and can boost photosynthesis at a time of year when it’s very important

Winter damage can be minimized by: 

  • Raising the cutting height during late summer or early fall 
  • Providing proper nutrition to build carbohydrates
  • Increasing bentgrass population
  • Encouraging rooting 
  • Reducing late fall irrigation to help decrease internal water in the plant 
  • Ensuring proper surface drainage

Apoplasm is the first compartment encountering environmental stresses and is important for plants tolerance to low temperature. Research data demonstrated an ameliorative effect of Si under both chilling and freezing stresses via modification of biochemical properties in the leaf apoplasm.

Read more about how Silicon Mitigates Cold Stress.

Salinity stress

Silicon has been proven to increase tolerance to salinity stress by regulating various biochemical and physiological processes, such as the Na+ balance, water status, reactive oxygen species, photosynthesis, phytohormone levels, and compatible solutes in plants. 

Salinity stress is one of the most common environmental stresses that pose a threat to the agriculture industry worldwide.

The effects of salinity stress on plants is manifested in the following areas:

  1. Osmotic stress caused by excessive soluble salt in the soil decreases the osmotic potential of soil solutions and decreases the ability of plant root systems to absorb water, resulting in physiological drought.
  2. Ion toxicity results from the toxic effect of salt ions like Na+ and Cl− inside plant cells. Excessive accumulation of intracellular salt ions results in ion imbalance and metabolic disorders.
  3. Secondary stresses are caused by osmotic and ionic stresses, including the accumulation of toxic compounds like ROS and disruption of nutrient balances in plants. For example, under high salinity conditions, Na+ competes with Ca2+ and K+ in the cell membrane, resulting in reproductive disorders.

The application of exogenous Si improves salinity tolerance in plants either by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes or blocking Na+ uptake and translocation (Khan et al., 2019).

Read more about Silicon and Salinity: Crosstalk in Crop-Mediated Stress Tolerance Mechanisms.

Si enhances photosynthesis in salt-stressed plants by decreasing salt-ion accumulation, scavenging ROS, and regulating carbohydrate metabolism. 

Studies on the mechanisms by which Si alleviates salinity stress in plants are mostly focused on decreasing Na+ in the root and/or shoot. For example, the addition of Si to salt-stressed barley could significantly decrease the levels of Na+ and Cl− in the root system, with Na+ and K+ being more evenly distributed throughout the entire root. This has been regarded as one of the major mechanisms by which Si alleviates salinity stress.

Learn more about the Role of Silicon in Mediating Salt Tolerance. 

Heavy metal contamination

Silicon derived enhancement in plant tolerance to heavy metal toxicity is well documented and the beneficial role of Si in detoxification can be ascribed to both external (growth media) and internal plant mechanisms. 

The external mechanism of elevating heavy metal tolerance is due to the increased pH by silicate application resulting in metal silicate precipitates that decrease the metal phyto-availability. 

Aquaritin Defend enhances cell wall elasticity and plasticity, which attributes to its effect alleviating the negative effects of heavy metals on plant growth.

Golf course

Learn more about Silicon in Mitigation of Heavy Metal Stress.

Heavy metal contamination in soil and water has increased due to anthropogenic activities. The higher exposure of plants to heavy metal stress reduces growth and yield. 

In plants, Si affects the translocation and distribution of metals in various plant parts and allows them to survive under higher metal stress. Given that plants vary in their ability to accumulate Si, higher accumulators such as monocots will usually obtain greater benefits, even though metal toxicity in both monocots and dicots can be alleviated by Si.

For example: research with rice plants concluded that Si application reduced the phytotoxicity of Cadmium and excess Zinc, by decreasing membrane permeability and malondialdehyde contents, enhancing the photosynthetic activity and modulating anti-oxidant enzyme activities. 

Silicon treatment also reduced Cadmium accumulation in rice plants through symplastic pathways in the root system, (Huang et al., 2019).

Read the full article on Silicon Mediated Enhancement of Heavy Metal Tolerance in Rice at Different Growth Stages.

Aquaritin. It's in my program.

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Our Sports Turf page is currently under construction. Click below to be put in touch with your local Aquaritin distributor.